Prevalence and control of brucellosis in Zimbabwe, risk factors, and challenges for control: A Review

Authors

  • T. A. Chari Department of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7920-9258
  • C. Gufe Department of Veterinary Technical Services, Central Veterinary Laboratories, Box CY55, 18A Borrowdale Road, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • P. Kayoka Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, Unisa, Pretoria, South Africa
  • R. Gabriel Department of Veterinary Technical Services, Central Veterinary Laboratories, Box CY55, 18A Borrowdale Road, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • S. Manatsa Division of Veterinary Services, Epidemiology, P.O. Box 72, Gweru, Zimbabwe
  • B. Mbonjani Department of Veterinary Technical Services, Central Veterinary Laboratories, Box CY55, 18A Borrowdale Road, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • J. Marumure School of Natural Sciences, Great Zimbabwe University, Off Old Great Zimbabwe Road, P. Bag 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe
  • Z. Makuvara School of Natural Sciences, Great Zimbabwe University, Off Old Great Zimbabwe Road, P. Bag 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe
  • P. V. Makaya Department of Veterinary Technical Services, Central Veterinary Laboratories, Box CY55, 18A Borrowdale Road, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • C. Mupungani National Institute of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Child Care, Corner Josiah Tongogara and Mazowe Street, Harare, Zimbabwe

Keywords:

Brucellosis; Zimbabwe; Prevalence, Control, Risk Factors

Abstract

Brucellosis is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by Brucella species. The disease affects both animals and humans and if left unmonitored can be a major public health issue in Zimbabwe. The review was conducted using internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar, HINARI, and unpublished stored data at the Central Veterinary Laboratory of Zimbabwe. A total of 19 scientific publications were reviewed, with 18 being full-length journal papers and one PhD dissertation. Despite the lack of an adequate national-wide surveillance strategy, brucellosis is considered endemic in Zimbabwe, with an estimated prevalence of 11.44% in cattle and 4.04% in wildlife. In cattle, commercial herds accounted for the most prevalence and most tested samples, while small-holder or communal herds had low prevalence and fewer tested samples. Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis, B. canis, and B. suis are some of the Brucella species circulating in Zimbabwe. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products, intimate contact with diseased animals, and insufficient veterinary services are all risk factors for brucellosis transmission in Zimbabwe. In Zimbabwe, brucellosis control faces challenges, namely insufficient resources, inadequate surveillance strategies, and a lack of public knowledge and education about the disease. Furthermore, insufficient diagnostic facilities and a scarcity of vaccinations for both animals impede disease control. Increased funds and resources are needed in Zimbabwe to expand surveillance, strengthen veterinary services, and promote public awareness and education about brucellosis. This review aimed at providing an overview of the prevalence and control of brucellosis in Zimbabwe, including its risk factors and the challenges associated with controlling brucellosis as well as identifying knowledge gaps and potential future research perspectives.

Published

27-01-2024

How to Cite

Chari, T. A. ., Gufe, C. ., Kayoka, P. ., Gabriel, R. ., Manatsa, S. ., Mbonjani, B. ., Marumure, J. ., Makuvara, Z. ., Makaya, P. V. . and Mupungani, C. . (2024) “Prevalence and control of brucellosis in Zimbabwe, risk factors, and challenges for control: A Review ”, Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 38(1), pp. 14–31. Available at: http://tvj.sua.ac.tz/vet2/index.php/TVJ/article/view/597 (Accessed: 20 May 2024).

Issue

Section

REVIEWS

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